FOUR Line (two in)Intervention
HIGH-RISE Fire Fighting
  Developing better responses to fires in tower bocks and high-rise buildings.


Four line ('two lines in') intervention:



This intervention tactic should be regarded as the MINIMUM safe offensive tactic for a SUSPECTED WIND DRIVEN FIRE. It is similar to the default 3 line approach but has a larger compartment entry team, 2 teams of 2 fire fighters who are equipped with TWO hose lines that are taken into the compartment for active fire control and intervention (thus the "two lines in")


It relies on high flow rates, correctly specified equipment and good water supplies which must be secured before compartment opening


If 45mm hose and conventional automatic branches are used optimal flow rates will be very difficult to achieve below the 10th floor (30M).


For optimum flow rates in these scenarios combinations of 51mm hose and smooth bore branches and/or specially designed "low pressure -high flow" must be used.

BUT It must be remembered that having 3 or 4 working jets on the upper stories of buildings taller than 10 stories (30M), there is a serious risk of overrunning the supply achievable from a 10 Bar 4" (100mm) Dry riser. (See Dry rise supply rates)

Deployment of Four line tactics


A PROPOSED FORMAT FOR A 4 Line (Crew of 16)


Whenever possible the Medium risk zone should be immediately evacuated by the reconnaissance team. The actions of opening the compartment will undoubtedly cause smoke logging in any adjouning corridor. These areas will become a High Risk zone.

Although occupants in unaffected flats in the Medium risk zone should be protected by the compartmentation of the building, this may be difficult to rely on without solid pre-incident intelligence. Also,during the intervention, the occupants may panic and attempt to self evacuate.



The reconnaissance team (2 Ff and 1 supervisor) set into the dry riser outlet on incident floor if possible and lay out one line of hose.


An additional 2 Ff with BA and 1 Entry Control Officer (ECO) liaise with the reconnaissance team supervisor. On arrival of the second BA team and ECO, the second line of hose is connected to the riser outlet and laid out.


A third hose line is laid from a floor between the bridgehead and the fire floor. This line MUST be capable of reaching all areas of the fire floor and flats connected to it.


The Supervisor, either IC or Sector commander (Bridgehead) conducts a risk assessment and confirms, by using internal and external and internal observer, that compartment entry is viable.


Entry may only be made to flat where it deamed viable, benificial and is fully assesed using an informed DRA. If any doubt regarding the safety of personnel undertaking such actions exists, intervention should reconcidered and other tactical options reviewed (containment etc..)



The three BA teams then start up their BA sets in clean air outside the Medium risk zone (usually at the bridgehead) or, where compartmentation is absent within a smoke free corridor or a location risk assessed as safe for this purpose.


The BA teams initiate the compartment entry as follows;


1. BA team to provide safety cover , protecting and monitoring the means of egress.

2. BA team positioned at (or close to) entrance to the compartment with a covering/backup jet.

3. BA team enter the compartment with a fire fighting jet.


The BA board is then taken by the ECO to establish the ECP at the bridgehead (the location of which is clearly identified to the BA wearers prior to their committal to allow accurate wear planning).

All further BA teams will be committed from the bridgehead through this ECP.


All high rise BA operations should consider the fact that the BA ECP may have to be moved or relocated if there is uncontroled smoke travel.


The bridgehead is commanded by a Sector Commander (Bridgehead)


Overall Incident Operational Command is always with the IC




It is normally a requirement to evacuate the Medium risk zone (ie any adjoining corridor or hall that may become involved) prior to undertaking any intervention.

The IC’s risk assessment will have considered the likelihood of fire spread beyond the affected compartments fire resistance measures (based on the signs and symptoms of fire identified by the reconnaissance team and any external observation) prior to implementing this tactic.



The following set tasks should be nominated, in order, to the first 14 relevant personnel attending as part of the initial attendance.


1 X ICS L1 = IC

1 X ICS L1 = SC (Bridgehead)

1 x Ff = Pump operator

2 x Ff = BA wearers (intervention & Firefighting)

2 x Ff = BA wearers (intervention & firefighting)

2 x Ff = BA wearers (Safety team-corridore)

2 x Ff = BA wearers (Safety team-stairwell)

1 X Ff = ECO

2 x Ff = BA Emergency crew (at Bridgehead)

1 x Ff = External Observer

1 x Ff = Command support




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Medium Risk. Areas requiring fire-fighters to be wearing full PPE and to have immediate access to RPE (worn but not in use). Fire-fighters in this area must be supervised by a suitably protected command qualified officer who has communications with the IC and Bridgehead commander and who can instigate an evacuation if required. Members of the public will be advised to immediately leave this area. Other Emergency responders will only work in this area after a briefing and under direct supervision of the FRS. Their presence and location must be recorded and logged.