INTERNAL TACTICAL OPTIONS - Single Hose line
HIGH-RISE Fire Fighting
|Developing better responses to fires in tower bocks and high-rise buildings.|
This observation should ideally be both internal and external to confirm extent
The Fire may not be extinguishable with one line, BUT is controllable pending the arrival of further resources
A JO (Junior Officers) is a person qualified to supervise a team of firefighters. In the UK this is usually a Crew or Watch Manager
Any External Observer must be capable of observing/understanding any potential/actual fire spread and development. They must be able to identify any hazardous fire phenomenon (Backdraft, flashover etc)
Typically these would be the actions carried out by the first attending crews and are usually identified by the IC/SC as appropriate during the reconnaissance and assessment phase of an incident.
This tactic would be appropriate at incidents where the fire can be DIRECTLY OBSERVED (through vision panels etc.) and is of a size controllable with a single Jet.
Importantly this intervention could mitigate a much larger fire that may develope if crews wait for a second or third hose line to backup there actions. Typical of this would be in commercial/retail environment where large open planed areas containing a high fire load that would exceed any amount of water normally available through dry/wet riser installation.
Single hose deployment may also be used as a "holding" tactic to control the fire until a fully resourced attack can be made or to control potentially catastrophic spread. This "holding" tactic must only be used when the size of the incident can be confirmed by direct observation.
Immediate interventions by the FRS (in the circumstances detailed above) are initially associated with single team BA deployment and the use of a Main hose line.Two or three hose line deployments may evolve out of single line deployments, especially where these additional lines are for safety jets or provisioning emergency crews.
In all instances the IC must initiate additional supporting/safety jets as soon as resources permit.
Minimum crewing /task analysis:
1 Sector Commander (Bridgehead)
2 BA Wearers (fire attack team)
1 External observer (Qualified to BA)
1 Pump operator
Initial attending crew deploy 3 to proposed bridgehead (JO and 2 BA wearers). These act as reconnaissance and assessment team.
Pump operator immediately deploys all equipment ready for charging dry riser.
The JO deployed may be working on various floor levels before he declares a suitable bridgehead floor. Only when the Bridgehead floor is declared can sectorisation start to occur.
At this very early stage this JO may still be the overall IC and be working above the bridgehead floor.
As soon as a suitable person is available to take overall Incident Command (usually externally) the proposed bridgehead can be reaffirmed and the original JO should be allocated as the Sector Commander, Bridgehead - SC(B)
An external observer is put in place and has direct comminication with the IC.
Initial reconnaissance informs the JO at bridgehead that a single hose line attack may be a suitable option.
SC(B) liaise liaise with Incident commander and external observer to confirm viability of a single line tactic.
If IC gives the confirms this tactic, deploy an ECO and any additional spare personal to the bridgehead.
The IC must immediately request resources for the potential development scenario (an additional two line attack, making a full three line, being the absolute minimum perceived requirement)
A single line attack should be initiated from the nearest Dry/wet riser outlet that has been assessed as suitable.
Where hose lines breech compartmentation or travel through stairwells, the SC(B) must thoroughly assess any potential impact this will have in accelerating fire developement and smoke spread. This is critical when identifying affected stairwells that are also the Means of Escape.